Case Study: Right Total Knee Replacement 

in a 72-year-old female with Arthritis

A 72-year-old female presented to our office with complaints of worsening right knee pain. She first noticed the pain while climbing stairs about three years ago. She denied any associated or preceding injury to the knee. The pain had worsened to the point she was unable to walk for more than half a block.

She stated that the pain was located on the inner side of the right knee. She described crunching/cracking/grinding sensation on moving the right knee. The pain was described as a dull to sharp ache. The intensity was variable and was severe on certain activities.

She stated the pain was exacerbated with activities such as prolonged standing, walking, bending, kneeling, squatting, twisting and turning. She used a cane as an assistive device and climbed stairs using the banter one step at a time.

She as a retired nurse who was active previously in organizing volunteer activities at a hospital. Since the severity of pain increased, she described her lifestyle as moribund. She felt distressed not being able to be active as earlier.

She previously tried conservative management in the form of physical therapy and heat pads. She also received visco-supplement injections from her physical therapist but with no relief.

She was a former smoker and consumed moderate alcohol socially. She denied any drug allergies and her past medical history was positive for hypertension, asthma, and dyslipidemia. Her medical conditions were well controlled with medications. She had a carpal tunnel release done a few years back.

On physical examination, she walked with an antalgic gait with a reduced stance phase on the right side. There was mild swelling of the right knee. Tenderness was present on the medial joint line. Tenderness was also present on the patellar facets.

The patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon was intact and non-tender. There was no evidence of any instability in the coronal, sagittal and axial planes. The range of motion was painful with copious crepitus.

The examination of the left knee, bilateral hips and ankles were normal. There was no distal neurological deficit. The bilateral lower extremity pulses were palpable and comparable. The bulk and tone of the bilateral lower extremities were normal.

Imaging studies revealed severe tricompartmental osteoarthritis of the right knee. Considering the lifestyle limiting knee pain, the patient was advised right total knee replacement. All the risks, benefits and alternatives were discussed in detail with the patient. The patient agreed to go ahead with the procedure.

Preoperative X-ray of both the knees in anteroposterior view
Preoperative X-ray of both the knees in anteroposterior view.

Preoperative X-ray of the right knee in lateral view and skyline viewPreoperative X-ray of the right knee in lateral view and skyline view - img 2

Preoperative X-ray of the right knee in lateral view and skyline view.

OPERATION: Right total knee arthroplasty.

IMPLANTS USED: Posterior stabilized femur size 11 with tibia size F with a tapered stem with 12-mm constrained posterior stabilized polyethylene.

DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE: The patient was brought to the operating room after obtaining informed consent signing in the correct surgical site. The risks, benefits, and alternatives were extensively discussed with the patient prior to the procedure. The patient understands that she is at a significantly increased risk for complications.

The patient was brought to the operating room, and anesthesia was obtained by the anesthesiologist. The right knee was then draped and prepped in the usual sterile manner with a cuff over the right thigh. Time-out was then performed, and the extremity was then exsanguinated. Tourniquet was then elevated.

A straight incision was used for the arthrotomy. Skin and subcutaneous tissues were then incised. The medial parapatellar arthrotomy was then performed. The fat pad was then resected. The medial soft tissue sleeve was then developed.

The femoral patient-specific guide was then placed into position and pinned into position. The distal cut was then performed followed by the anterior, posterior, and the chamfer cuts. The tibial resection was then performed. Laminar spreaders were then used medially and laterally and the meniscus and the cruciates were then debrided. The notch cut was then performed.

The extension, flexion space was found to be well balanced. The trial femur was placed into position followed by the trial tibia and the poly. The patella was then resected. and the trial patella was then placed into position.

The knee was trialed through a full range of motion, and the range was found to be excellent. Patellar tracking was found to be excellent. The flexion and extension gap was found to be well balanced.

The trial components were then removed. Thorough lavage was given, and intraarticular injection was given. The femur was cemented into position followed by the tibia, and the poly was then placed into position.

The knee was then held in full extension after removing the cement. and the patella was then placed into position. and excess cement was then removed. After the cement hardened, the patellar clamp was then removed.

At this point, it was noticed that the knee was balanced, but the polyethylene size was smaller. The patellar size was therefore increased to 12 mm from a 10 mm polyethylene.

After the new polyethylene was placed into position, the knee was stable. Flexion and extension gaps were found to be well balanced. A thorough lavage was given. The medial parapatellar arthrotomy was closed with Ethibond.

Cutaneous tissues were closed with O Vicryl. Subcuticular tissues were closed with 2 O Vicryl. The skin was closed using staples. Sterile dressing was then applied over the wound, and the patient was then transferred to the postoperative care unit in stable condition.

Postoperative X-ray of the right knee with a prosthesis in anteroposterior and lateral viewsPostoperative X-ray of the right knee with a prosthesis in anteroposterior and lateral views - img 2

Postoperative X-ray of the right knee with a prosthesis in anteroposterior and lateral views.

Post-op the patient’s recovery was good with normal vitals. She was able to walk with support on the same day. She was given oral medications for pain and aspirin for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

She was advised physical therapy as she was discharged the following day. The sutures were removed uneventfully. Two months post-op she demonstrated a full range of motion of the right knee with no pain. She was back to her baseline and expressed satisfaction on the outcome of the procedure.

Disclaimer – Patient’s name, age, sex, dates, events have been changed or modified to protect patient privacy.

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No one likes going to the doctor. But these people make it painless. I go for knees, hips and shoulders. At almost 70 Complete Orthopedics keeps my active life style running smoothly. Whether chasing my Grandson and even surfing again, I highly recommend them!!
Thomas Slavin
15:02 02 Mar 23
Dr. Kuo knowledgeable and competent surgeon- very good experience and more importantly great result.
Joseph McCoy
21:23 25 Feb 23
Dr Vaksha was so kind and helpful. He took extra time with us and explained things so thoroughly. Highly recommend. Office very clean.
Susan Bosinius
20:20 19 Feb 23
Dr Vaksha, is a great doctor very professional knows what he talking about. Treat patient with upmost respect. Thank You
Troy Spencer
16:46 19 Jan 23
Dr. Karkare is an amazing doctor, very caring and attentive, the girl at the front desk is very kind and helpful. .elizabeth .thank you so much .
blanca ventura
21:32 26 Oct 22
Been going to this place before my accident and after I had my knee surgery. So happy how I been treated and how well I am getting. Thank you all and specially Dr. VAKSHA for everything and getting back on track.
Ita Opico
19:01 25 Oct 22
Love this place From the minute I called I was treated kindly. When I arrived The Dr saw me right away he was compassionate and ordered the appropriate tests for me. I came back in for my follow up and had the same great experience.
Christine Rostock
21:28 23 May 22
Dr Vaksha and Dr karkare are 2 of the best orthopedic doctors around my wife Susan had a very serious broken ankle in March of 2019 she didn't think she was going to walk again Dr vaksha did an excellent surgery on her ankle he said it was his toughest he ever did he put a lot of hardware in her ankle and told her she would be alright she made remarkable recovery thanks to his surgery as of now she regained 100 percent use of her ankle she would highly recommend him to anyone. My own experience with Dr karkare has been wonderful he takes his time with you listens to what you have to say and prescribes various treatments and is very caring I would highly recommend him to anyone I would give both doctors a 10 plus rating we are very happy with them the best.
Harry Jones
23:31 19 May 22
Complete orthopedics is a wonderful place to go when you hurt or injured a great staff and wonderful doctors very knowledgeable and helpful I would recommend this place to all of my family and friends that is in me of orthopedic care I give them 10 thumbs up
Wayne Pemberton
17:39 18 May 22
The staff is very professional and helpful. Dr. Vaksha is excellent. He takes time to listen and offer suggestions to help you get better. I’m very thankful and happy to be a patient here at Complete Orthopedics.
Phoenix Rising
19:54 16 May 22
Dr.Karkare is the best. He listens to everything and explains everything I recommend him to everyone. I am so happy he is my doctor.
Myrna James
00:48 13 May 22
Dr.Kuo is amazing very attentive,caring,and passionate and staff is awsome too.Thank you for everything Dr.kuo.
Erick Murillo
23:17 12 May 22
I was in a car accident November 1 I was referred to Dr. Vaksha For shoulder surgery . I he was amazing he made me feel very comfortable and explained everything that was going to happen from surgery all the way through my physical therapy highly recommend Dr. Vaksha
Yolanda Ojeda
19:37 09 May 22
My appointment with Dr. Vaksha was amazing. Dr. Vaksha was very thorough and kind. I would refer this office to anyone who needs a great orthopedic doctor.
John Senechal
19:54 05 May 22
Scheduling my appointment was quick and easy. The staff was super friendly and down to earth. I was seen on time. The appropriate test, “x-rays” were taken before the conversation with doctor, something I really liked, test for analysis and conversation was done upfront. Dr. V had a great personality and was no BS, straight forward diagnosis and a play on next steps. I am happy I found them and would refer them to friends and family.
00:46 03 May 22
I have seen Dr. Kuo two times already and he's awesome along with his staff. Very friendly office and I'm glad to be a patient here.
Camaris A
20:01 28 Apr 22
Amazing team!! Very caring, profesional, and friendly!! Dr. Kevin Kuo, you are the best, very passionate, caring, and helping thank you for getting me better and being so kind to me! Elizabeth you the best thank you for you help always and you big smile and positive actitud❤️🙏🏼
breidy valerio
19:01 22 Apr 22
The staff is truly exceptional, they make you feel comfortable and welcomed. The doctors are amazing,always professional, compassionate and great listeners.
Elizabeth Collado
03:25 09 Apr 22
What a great place! The place is clean and organized.The staff is wonderful. Setting up physical therapy is right there as well.I'm so glad I found this place.
Donna Anne
22:45 05 Apr 22
This was my 1st time breaking something in my 27 years on this planet. I was recommended here by a friend Dr. Vashka helped me from day 1 and still continues to check in on me and my healing ankle. Would highly recommend
tyron davis
16:06 01 Apr 22
Brand new office, same great doctors! Rooms are clean, plenty of parking, physical therapy attached, Dr. Karkare and his staff are awesome. Thank you!
Emily B
02:49 24 Mar 22
Dr.VAksha is the best, I love the way he treats me as his patient, he is caring,understanding and very attentive to my needs
Mirna Caballero
14:53 03 Mar 22
Great staff. Dr. Vaksha is awesome and takes the time to listen to his patients. He is very compassionate. I would highly recommend this office.
Bebe Doyle
01:24 23 Feb 22
After suffering from a severe ankle injury Dr. V was able to help me heal and return back to work completely to a job where I stand for 12 hours a day. The office is very clean and I appreciated the reminders of my appointments via phone call and through text. The patient portal made it easy for me to access all my documents including work notes. The office staff is wonderful and Rebecca was able to schedule me with a busy schedule and awesome at answering all of my questions including referring me to a great physical therapy office. I highly recommend this office to anyone who’s looking for knowledgeable and kind orthopedic office.
Elizabeth Birchwell
21:31 28 Jan 21
The staff here are great, I was seen at the time of my appointment and was well taken care of!
Shaun Berry
18:14 07 Jan 21
They are an excellent practice. The front and back office people are amazing and so helpful. Rebecca is such a kind and understanding person. I had an issue with paperwork and she cleared it right up. Dr. Karkare is very knowledgeable, helpful, and caring.
Matt S.
19:31 18 Nov 20
Rebecca K. - What a true burst of sunshine. Very friendly and definitely an asset to the practice!
Laura Aston
18:17 17 Nov 20
Great experience, the Doctor is nice but the staff is incredible. I worked with Linda, who was profession and assisted me beyond what any person has done at other practices. Complete Ortho should be complimented for having such a person on their staff.I highly recommend this place!!!
Joe Allen
17:26 17 Nov 20
Linda and Becca they are so good ever time I come they are very nice I would tell everyone I no to come to this office..
Barbara Victor
16:45 17 Nov 20
I was rear ended in an auto accident , Dr Vashka was recommended by a friend of mine .I was experiencing Back , neck , and shoulder pain . After a thorough examination and given exercises to do at home , I am feeling much better , and I ended up avoiding surgery . The staff at Complete Ortho is extremely attentive and show great care when making an appointment and are very friendly and i never waited more than 5 minutes for my appointment . So I would strongly recommend Complete Orthopedics for any aches and pains that one might be experiencing.....
Bill Becht
04:44 17 Nov 20
It was the afternoon of Friday Sept. 24. We were in Pt. Jefferson and my wife, Mary Ann, broke her hip. We went to Mather Hospital and it was determined that she would have to have an operation to have it repaired. This would be her third time under the knife in the past year. It just so happened that we were very fortunate enough to have Dr. Karkare, who was on standby, perform the surgery. He put in a rod and two screws in her hip. She spent a few days in the hospital and then went to Gurwin rehabilitee for another few weeks.It has now been almost six weeks and we both worked the election the other day. If it wasn’t for Dr. Karkare’s expertise she never would have been able to work. She is able to walk with a walker and is doing physical therapy three times a week.We can not thank the doctor enough for the compassion and dedication that he puts into his work. It allows Mary Ann do the things that she likes to do, even on a limited basis for a while. I know that with her will, perseverance and the great work that the surgeon performed she will be back on her feet in no time.Sincerely:John V. PlumpEast Northport, NY 11731
Jack Harris
14:36 06 Nov 20
In the year of 2018 I was referred to Dr. Karkare because I was experiencing severe knee joint pain. After exhausting physical therapy and trying to labor through the pain, I had to make a quality of life decision. Total knee replacement was the only viable option. Dr. Karkare made my decision easy as he walked me through the whole process from surgery to recovery.On 12/13/19 ( Friday the 13th) I enter Lenox Hill Hospital in great hands. From the time I entered Dr. Karkare’s office for the first time until now, his staff has been amazing. Andrea the medical coordinator walked me through all the paper work and necessary preparations for the surgery. Courtesy and kind would be an understatement. Dr. Karkare went over and beyond from the wellness checks and phone calls all to assure me that I was important to him. This was the right decision no pain and no limp. Complete Orthopedics should be your choice!
Kenneth Randolph
22:18 25 Sep 20
Dr. Vadshka has a great bedside manner. He really takes his time and explains treatment options.
T Lee
12:33 09 Sep 20
I suffered with pain in both knees for years. My orthopedic doctor kept recommending knee replacement . I fought it for years, as I was just afraid. When I had no choice and could barely walk , it was recommended I see Dr. Karkare. We set up a consultation and my wife and I left his office feeling totally confident and comfortable with moving ahead with the surgery. He explained everything to us, and the office staff set everything up for us and made the process easy. So about one month after our initial meeting I had the first knee done. I was up walking mere hours after the surgery, and on the workout machines the next morning. I went home two days after the surgery, and yes walked my daughter down the aisle at her wedding only one week after the surgery without even a cane! Three months later I had the other knee done and went home the very next day. Dr. Karkare put my fears to rest . I would highly recommend him. His expertise gave me my life back. Thank you Dr. Karkare.SincerelyVito Congro
Ethel Congo
23:58 12 Aug 20
Dr Rhodin really cares for his patients. When I see him he makes sure to review my progress in detail.
Micki Cahill
15:03 08 Feb 20
My mom had a total hip replacement by dr karkare. He is the BEST orthopedic doctor.Her incision is almost invisable.She is going back for her other hip next week. The office staff is the best, love Andrea.You wont find a better doctor.
Ryan Brigandi
21:06 13 Jul 18
There is no better Orthopedic doctor you will find. Broke my ankle three places on a Saturday. Called Dr. Karkare. He had is team ready at the hospital and operated on me within 6 hours after my injury. Now After 3 months of great care by him and his staff, I am walking to normalcy.
Spacecom Tel
04:13 23 Mar 18

My name is Dr. Suhirad Khokhar, and am an orthopaedic surgeon. I completed my MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery) at Govt. Medical College, Patiala, India.

I specialize in musculoskeletal disorders and their management, and have personally approved of and written this content.

My profile page has all of my educational information, work experience, and all the pages on this site that I've contributed to.