Total Disc Replacement



LTDR came before CTDR in historical context. In 1960, Fernstrom performed the initial implantation of the first LTDR, which took the shape of a steel ball. The procedure was conducted using an anterior approach.

At first, the outcomes appeared promising, but over time, it became evident that the ball settling into the subchondral bone led to disappointing long-term results. Schellnack and Buttner implanted the SB Charité® prosthesis in the early 1980s. This prosthesis comprised two chromium-cobalt plates and a mobile polyethylene core.

In France, David and Lemaire regularly used the three successive models [1–3] of this prosthesis. In 1989, Marnay described the ProDisc-L®, which featured plates with a central titanium stem. Following that time, numerous diverse LTDR designs have been introduced to the market.


In 1962, Fernstrom faced similar challenges with his prosthesis in CTDR (cervical total disc replacement) as he did with LTDR (lumbar total disc replacement). The Prestige® prosthesis, a metal-metal design screwed into the vertebral bodies with a stabilization crest, was not developed until 1989-1991. It was only in 1995 that Bryan started regularly utilizing the CTDR named after him. Under the supervision of Goffin and Pointillart, numerous multicenter studies followed the first implantation in Europe in 2000. Subsequently, a wide variety of CTDR designs have been introduced to the market.


Artificial disc replacements (TDRs) consist of bearing surfaces specifically engineered to endure load without fracturing, minimize friction and wear, and preserve the range of motion for as long as feasible. The assessment is based on wear and motion tests conducted under varying loads and movements. A lifespan of 30 to 50 years is deemed equivalent to the successful completion of 30 to 50 million cycles.

  • Metals and alloys, including:
    • stainless steel alloys,
    • titanium and titanium alloys
    • cobalt alloys
  • Ceramics, known for their increased wear resistance but reduced ductility, tend to be more fragile in nature.
  • For the nucleus positioned between the metal plates, high molecular weight polyethylene, such as UHMWPE (ultrahigh molecular weight
  • polyethylene), is employed.

TDR models are categorized based on factors such as anchorage, surface and friction couple, constrained or unconstrained design, location of the center of movement, and compatibility with MRI scans.

The surface coating facilitates osseointegration and may be composed of materials such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, porous titanium, or chromium-cobalt.

Anchorage, referring to the contact between the implant and the vertebral plates, can be accomplished using a stem, screw, or macro-texture. In the case of constrained TDRs, stronger anchorage is necessary due to the higher transmission of forces to the vertebral plates. To safeguard the plates from potential mechanical stress, the Bryan CTDR incorporates highly mobile plates.

Friction Couples

  • metal/polyethylene
  • metal/metal
  • ceramic/polyethylen
  • ceramic/ceramic

Among the various friction bearings used in arthroplasty, the metal/polyethylene combination is the oldest and well-established, particularly in hip replacements. This combination serves as a reference point, but it is worth noting that the polyethylene debris particles produced in this setting are relatively large in size.

Metal-metal couples and, to an even greater extent, ceramic-ceramic couples generate minimal amounts of debris, which are also smaller in size. This characteristic greatly reduces the risk of inflammation associated with the presence of debris.


CTDRs and LTDRs have different indications and can be used in young patients with various clinical signs. LTDRs are typically recommended for severe low back pain, while CTDRs are often performed alongside decompression surgery. Hybrid procedures, combining TDR with fusion, may be conducted in both cervical and lumbar regions.


TDR is primarily indicated for chronic low back pain that does not respond to conservative treatment. Clinical assessment involves evaluating pain levels, functional impairment, and overall health. Factors associated with poor prognosis include prolonged symptom duration, severity of the condition, and psychological factors.

Radiographs and MRI help assess spinal alignment, disc pathology, and muscle degeneration. Vascular exploration and discography may be considered in certain cases. Previous discal surgery is a common indication, while conditions like malalignment and osteoporosis are contraindications for LTDR.


The primary indication for CTDR is the presence of soft hernia leading to cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy that is resistant to treatment. The assessment process includes evaluating pain levels, functional impairment, and myelopathy scores. Surgical interventions for this condition may involve either discectomy or arthrodesis.

The suitability of CTDR for cases of osteophytic hard discal hernia and myelopathy caused by cervical osteoarthritis is a subject of ongoing debate. Certain factors serve as contraindications for CTDR, including prior cervical surgery, posterior joint osteoarthritis, ligament ossification, hyperostosis, instability, osteoporosis, and the presence of infectious or neoplastic conditions.

Surgical Techniques

Both LTDR and CTDR employ an anterior approach, albeit with distinct techniques. Anterior cervical disc procedures involve cervicotomy, leading to a lateral inclination of the trachea-bronchial axis. LTDR presents difficulties due to the close proximity of major blood vessels at specific lumbar levels.


Throughout the procedure, the patient is positioned in the “French position” with legs apart and a bladder catheter inserted. The surgical field extends from the xyphoid region to the pubis, ensuring clear visibility of the iliac crests.

To minimize risks, the retroperitoneal approach is preferred over other options, reducing potential harm to the superior hypogastric plexus. Careful attention is given to controlling the median sacral vessels, and the disc is completely removed up to the dorsal longitudinal ligament.

Anchoring of the prosthesis is performed after thorough preparation of the vertebral plates, with precise centering being critical for optimal mechanical functioning.

The height of the LTDR varies depending on the specific level and the patient’s size. In some cases, oblique prostheses may be utilized to prevent undue traction on blood vessels. Vessel exposure can be challenging and may require the expertise of a skilled vascular surgeon. Although the lateral transpsoas approach is an alternative that avoids vessel dissection, it has not yet been fully validated.


CTDR, much like LTDR, utilizes techniques similar to the implantation of an intersomatic cage. Before the procedure, careful planning is done, taking into account the dimensions of the disc and vertebral bodies.

During the surgery, the patient is positioned in dorsal decubitus with slight forward inclination, guided by fluoroscopy. Cervicotomy can be performed horizontally or vertically, depending on the number of levels involved. Discectomy includes the sectioning of the dorsal longitudinal ligament, and the use of an intersomatic distractor aids in exposing the discal space.

The specific resection techniques employed depend on the type of hernia. The height of the CTDR is determined by neighboring discs, taking into consideration factors such as postoperative neck pain and the preservation of range of motion. Postoperative recovery is usually uncomplicated, with no requirement for a cervical collar following CTDR.

TDR has proven to be as effective as fusion procedures. LTDR indications have diminished due to uncertain outcomes, except for specific cases like inflammatory single-discopathy. CTDR is a reasonable option for young patients with cervical disc herniation.

The procedure preserves preoperative range of motion and reduces involvement of adjacent segments. However, long-term follow-up is needed to confirm the advantages of TDR over fusion.

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Based on 107 reviews
Dr. Nakul Karkare is awesome! And patriotic! Thank you, Dr. Karkare for displaying the American Flag in your waiting room, honoring and mourning our military personnel, this Memorial Day, who died while serving in the United States Armed Forces.
00:52 30 May 23
Excellent and skilled orthopedic practice specializing in joint replacements. Dr Karkare was trained at the Hospital for Special Surgery and has excellent results, as do his associates!! Would gladly refer family members to the practice!!
00:24 30 May 23
I had such a wonderful experience with Complete Orthopedics in Stony Brook. Not only did Dr. Kuo fix my broken wrist with such kindness and care, but the office staff, including Billing, Reception and the X-Ray Technician, was always so helpful, going out of their way to ensure that each patient felt welcome, answering any questions with a smile, and ensuring any issues with insurance/billing were handled with the utmost professionalism. I highly recommend their practice!
Victoria DeMatteo
19:49 10 May 23
I'm very happy St. Catherine's sent me to this office for treatment after I broke my collar bone! Unfortunately the break was too severe to repair on its own and I had to have it rebuilt a week after the injury. Dr. Vaksha did a great job fixing it. I'm three months out, and I have full use of the arm and shoulder. The whole office staff is very professional, accommodating, and welcoming. I hope to not need orthopedic services again, but Dr. Vaksha will be my number one choice if I or anyone in family suffers such am injury.
Tina Rivera
20:42 08 May 23
No one likes going to the doctor. But these people make it painless. I go for knees, hips and shoulders. At almost 70 Complete Orthopedics keeps my active life style running smoothly. Whether chasing my Grandson and even surfing again, I highly recommend them!!
Thomas Slavin
15:02 02 Mar 23
Dr. Kuo knowledgeable and competent surgeon- very good experience and more importantly great result.
Joseph McCoy
21:23 25 Feb 23
Dr Vaksha was so kind and helpful. He took extra time with us and explained things so thoroughly. Highly recommend. Office very clean.
Susan Bosinius
20:20 19 Feb 23
Dr Vaksha, is a great doctor very professional knows what he talking about. Treat patient with upmost respect. Thank You
Troy Spencer
16:46 19 Jan 23
Dr. Karkare is an amazing doctor, very caring and attentive, the girl at the front desk is very kind and helpful. .elizabeth .thank you so much .
blanca ventura
21:32 26 Oct 22
Been going to this place before my accident and after I had my knee surgery. So happy how I been treated and how well I am getting. Thank you all and specially Dr. VAKSHA for everything and getting back on track.
Ita Opico
19:01 25 Oct 22
Love this place From the minute I called I was treated kindly. When I arrived The Dr saw me right away he was compassionate and ordered the appropriate tests for me. I came back in for my follow up and had the same great experience.
Christine Rostock
21:28 23 May 22
Dr Vaksha and Dr karkare are 2 of the best orthopedic doctors around my wife Susan had a very serious broken ankle in March of 2019 she didn't think she was going to walk again Dr vaksha did an excellent surgery on her ankle he said it was his toughest he ever did he put a lot of hardware in her ankle and told her she would be alright she made remarkable recovery thanks to his surgery as of now she regained 100 percent use of her ankle she would highly recommend him to anyone. My own experience with Dr karkare has been wonderful he takes his time with you listens to what you have to say and prescribes various treatments and is very caring I would highly recommend him to anyone I would give both doctors a 10 plus rating we are very happy with them the best.
Harry Jones
23:31 19 May 22
Complete orthopedics is a wonderful place to go when you hurt or injured a great staff and wonderful doctors very knowledgeable and helpful I would recommend this place to all of my family and friends that is in me of orthopedic care I give them 10 thumbs up
Wayne Pemberton
17:39 18 May 22
The staff is very professional and helpful. Dr. Vaksha is excellent. He takes time to listen and offer suggestions to help you get better. I’m very thankful and happy to be a patient here at Complete Orthopedics.
Phoenix Rising
19:54 16 May 22
Dr.Karkare is the best. He listens to everything and explains everything I recommend him to everyone. I am so happy he is my doctor.
Myrna James
00:48 13 May 22
Dr.Kuo is amazing very attentive,caring,and passionate and staff is awsome too.Thank you for everything Dr.kuo.
Erick Murillo
23:17 12 May 22
I was in a car accident November 1 I was referred to Dr. Vaksha For shoulder surgery . I he was amazing he made me feel very comfortable and explained everything that was going to happen from surgery all the way through my physical therapy highly recommend Dr. Vaksha
Yolanda Ojeda
19:37 09 May 22
My appointment with Dr. Vaksha was amazing. Dr. Vaksha was very thorough and kind. I would refer this office to anyone who needs a great orthopedic doctor.
John Senechal
19:54 05 May 22
Scheduling my appointment was quick and easy. The staff was super friendly and down to earth. I was seen on time. The appropriate test, “x-rays” were taken before the conversation with doctor, something I really liked, test for analysis and conversation was done upfront. Dr. V had a great personality and was no BS, straight forward diagnosis and a play on next steps. I am happy I found them and would refer them to friends and family.
00:46 03 May 22
I have seen Dr. Kuo two times already and he's awesome along with his staff. Very friendly office and I'm glad to be a patient here.
Camaris A
20:01 28 Apr 22
Amazing team!! Very caring, profesional, and friendly!! Dr. Kevin Kuo, you are the best, very passionate, caring, and helping thank you for getting me better and being so kind to me! Elizabeth you the best thank you for you help always and you big smile and positive actitud❤️🙏🏼
breidy valerio
19:01 22 Apr 22
The staff is truly exceptional, they make you feel comfortable and welcomed. The doctors are amazing,always professional, compassionate and great listeners.
Elizabeth Collado
03:25 09 Apr 22
What a great place! The place is clean and organized.The staff is wonderful. Setting up physical therapy is right there as well.I'm so glad I found this place.
Donna Anne
22:45 05 Apr 22
This was my 1st time breaking something in my 27 years on this planet. I was recommended here by a friend Dr. Vashka helped me from day 1 and still continues to check in on me and my healing ankle. Would highly recommend
tyron davis
16:06 01 Apr 22
Brand new office, same great doctors! Rooms are clean, plenty of parking, physical therapy attached, Dr. Karkare and his staff are awesome. Thank you!
Emily B
02:49 24 Mar 22
Dr.VAksha is the best, I love the way he treats me as his patient, he is caring,understanding and very attentive to my needs
Mirna Caballero
14:53 03 Mar 22
Great staff. Dr. Vaksha is awesome and takes the time to listen to his patients. He is very compassionate. I would highly recommend this office.
Bebe Doyle
01:24 23 Feb 22
After suffering from a severe ankle injury Dr. V was able to help me heal and return back to work completely to a job where I stand for 12 hours a day. The office is very clean and I appreciated the reminders of my appointments via phone call and through text. The patient portal made it easy for me to access all my documents including work notes. The office staff is wonderful and Rebecca was able to schedule me with a busy schedule and awesome at answering all of my questions including referring me to a great physical therapy office. I highly recommend this office to anyone who’s looking for knowledgeable and kind orthopedic office.
Elizabeth Birchwell
21:31 28 Jan 21
The staff here are great, I was seen at the time of my appointment and was well taken care of!
Shaun Berry
18:14 07 Jan 21
They are an excellent practice. The front and back office people are amazing and so helpful. Rebecca is such a kind and understanding person. I had an issue with paperwork and she cleared it right up. Dr. Karkare is very knowledgeable, helpful, and caring.
Matt S.
19:31 18 Nov 20
Rebecca K. - What a true burst of sunshine. Very friendly and definitely an asset to the practice!
Laura Aston
18:17 17 Nov 20
Great experience, the Doctor is nice but the staff is incredible. I worked with Linda, who was profession and assisted me beyond what any person has done at other practices. Complete Ortho should be complimented for having such a person on their staff.I highly recommend this place!!!
Joe Allen
17:26 17 Nov 20
Linda and Becca they are so good ever time I come they are very nice I would tell everyone I no to come to this office..
Barbara Victor
16:45 17 Nov 20
I was rear ended in an auto accident , Dr Vashka was recommended by a friend of mine .I was experiencing Back , neck , and shoulder pain . After a thorough examination and given exercises to do at home , I am feeling much better , and I ended up avoiding surgery . The staff at Complete Ortho is extremely attentive and show great care when making an appointment and are very friendly and i never waited more than 5 minutes for my appointment . So I would strongly recommend Complete Orthopedics for any aches and pains that one might be experiencing.....
Bill Becht
04:44 17 Nov 20
It was the afternoon of Friday Sept. 24. We were in Pt. Jefferson and my wife, Mary Ann, broke her hip. We went to Mather Hospital and it was determined that she would have to have an operation to have it repaired. This would be her third time under the knife in the past year. It just so happened that we were very fortunate enough to have Dr. Karkare, who was on standby, perform the surgery. He put in a rod and two screws in her hip. She spent a few days in the hospital and then went to Gurwin rehabilitee for another few weeks.It has now been almost six weeks and we both worked the election the other day. If it wasn’t for Dr. Karkare’s expertise she never would have been able to work. She is able to walk with a walker and is doing physical therapy three times a week.We can not thank the doctor enough for the compassion and dedication that he puts into his work. It allows Mary Ann do the things that she likes to do, even on a limited basis for a while. I know that with her will, perseverance and the great work that the surgeon performed she will be back on her feet in no time.Sincerely:John V. PlumpEast Northport, NY 11731
Jack Harris
14:36 06 Nov 20
In the year of 2018 I was referred to Dr. Karkare because I was experiencing severe knee joint pain. After exhausting physical therapy and trying to labor through the pain, I had to make a quality of life decision. Total knee replacement was the only viable option. Dr. Karkare made my decision easy as he walked me through the whole process from surgery to recovery.On 12/13/19 ( Friday the 13th) I enter Lenox Hill Hospital in great hands. From the time I entered Dr. Karkare’s office for the first time until now, his staff has been amazing. Andrea the medical coordinator walked me through all the paper work and necessary preparations for the surgery. Courtesy and kind would be an understatement. Dr. Karkare went over and beyond from the wellness checks and phone calls all to assure me that I was important to him. This was the right decision no pain and no limp. Complete Orthopedics should be your choice!
Kenneth Randolph
22:18 25 Sep 20
Dr. Vadshka has a great bedside manner. He really takes his time and explains treatment options.
T Lee
12:33 09 Sep 20
I suffered with pain in both knees for years. My orthopedic doctor kept recommending knee replacement . I fought it for years, as I was just afraid. When I had no choice and could barely walk , it was recommended I see Dr. Karkare. We set up a consultation and my wife and I left his office feeling totally confident and comfortable with moving ahead with the surgery. He explained everything to us, and the office staff set everything up for us and made the process easy. So about one month after our initial meeting I had the first knee done. I was up walking mere hours after the surgery, and on the workout machines the next morning. I went home two days after the surgery, and yes walked my daughter down the aisle at her wedding only one week after the surgery without even a cane! Three months later I had the other knee done and went home the very next day. Dr. Karkare put my fears to rest . I would highly recommend him. His expertise gave me my life back. Thank you Dr. Karkare.SincerelyVito Congro
Ethel Congo
23:58 12 Aug 20
Dr Rhodin really cares for his patients. When I see him he makes sure to review my progress in detail.
Micki Cahill
15:03 08 Feb 20
My mom had a total hip replacement by dr karkare. He is the BEST orthopedic doctor.Her incision is almost invisable.She is going back for her other hip next week. The office staff is the best, love Andrea.You wont find a better doctor.
Ryan Brigandi
21:06 13 Jul 18
There is no better Orthopedic doctor you will find. Broke my ankle three places on a Saturday. Called Dr. Karkare. He had is team ready at the hospital and operated on me within 6 hours after my injury. Now After 3 months of great care by him and his staff, I am walking to normalcy.
Spacecom Tel
04:13 23 Mar 18

I am Vedant Vaksha, Fellowship trained Spine, Sports and Arthroscopic Surgeon at Complete Orthopedics. I take care of patients with ailments of the neck, back, shoulder, knee, elbow and ankle. I personally approve this content and have written most of it myself.

Please take a look at my profile page and don't hesitate to come in and talk.