The natural history of these patients. So, most Odontoid fractures in elderly population can be treated conservatively, non-surgically, they are put in a C collar, they do really well.

Only patients, either if there’s a young patient who has an Odontoid fracture because of their activity levels and demands, they are preferentially treated surgically, and we try to do a non-fusion surgeries on these, and I’ll talk about that a little bit.

But, most of them can be treated. And only patients who have neurological symptoms, need to be treated surgically, in case of Odontoid fractures.

Patients who develop a neurological deficit, will usually have a downhill course and they may need surgery.
Patients can be treated with supervised neglect if there is no neurological involvement, and these patients respond favorably to surgical decompression and if needed stabilization.

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