General Guideline Principles for Non-Opioid Medications and
Medical Management for workers compensation patients

The New York State workers compensation board has developed these guidelines to help physicians, podiatrists, and other healthcare professionals provide appropriate treatment for Non-Opioid Medications and Medical Management.

These Workers Compensation Board guidelines are intended to assist healthcare professionals in making decisions regarding the appropriate level of care for their patients with ankle and foot disorders.

The guidelines are not a substitute for clinical judgement or professional experience. The ultimate decision regarding care must be made by the patient in consultation with his or her healthcare provider.

Non-Opioid Medications and Medical Management

(For Narcotics, see Segment F.2 Narcotics: Starting, Changing and Overseeing Long haul Oral Narcotics).

Introduction of Non-Opioid Medications and Medical Management

  • There is no basic recipe for pharmacological treatment of patients with non-intense, non-threatening agony.

  • A careful drug history, including utilization of option and over the-counter prescriptions, ought to be performed at the hour of the beginning visit and refreshed intermittently.

  • Suitable utilization of pharmacological specialists relies upon the patient’s age, history (counting history of substance misuse), drug sensitivities and the idea of every single clinical issue.

Goals of Non-Opioid Medications and Medical Management

  • The objective of treatment is to further develop capability with an emphasis on the advancement of self-administration abilities.

  • Control of non-intense agony is supposed to include the utilization of prescription.

  • Patients ought to comprehend that meds alone are far-fetched to give total relief from discomfort.

  • Notwithstanding prescriptions, proceeding with support in a self-management plan (as depicted in this rule) is fundamental for fruitful administration of non-intense agony.

Pharmacological Principles of Non-Opioid Medications and Medical Management

  • The doctor ought to completely comprehend pharmacological standards while managing the different medication families, their incidental effects, drug connections, bioavailability profiles, what’s more, essential justification for every medicine’s utilization.

  • Aftereffects as well as the potential for optional impacts ought to be suitably checked.

  • Collaborations between recommended prescriptions and over-the counter meds should be thought of, as well as other ailments that might disrupt the doses and time periods.

  • All meds ought to be given a fitting preliminary to test for remedial impact.

  • The length of a suitable preliminary fluctuates generally relying upon the individual drug.

Neuropathic Pain of Non-Opioid Medications and Medical Management

  • Neuropathic torment can be treated with various prescriptions.

  • It is proposed that patients with neuropathic torment be tested with atricyclic prescription at first, as low portion drug in this class is often endured and performs adequately.

  • On the off chance that this comes up short, or on the other hand if secondary effects are not endured, or a patient has clinical issues blocking the utilization of this class of medications, other proper prescriptions can be attempted.

  • Second line drugs incorporate the counter convulsant gabapentin and pregabalin.

  • Third line drugs are the Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI) and effective lidocaine.

  • Fourth line drugs are narcotics, tramadol, and tapentadol.

  • Different drugs have not many supporting clinical preliminaries however might be supportive in certain patients.

  • Associative utilization of numerous medications of a similar class isn’t are recommended.

Medication of Non-Opioid Medications and Medical Management

For the clinician to decipher the accompanying material, it ought to be noticed that: (1) the posting is a short outline of pharmacological other options, (2) drugs in each class and drug profiles are incomplete, (3) dosing of medications will rely on the particular drug, particularly for off-name use, and (4) exceptional thought and watchfulness ought to be utilized for ladies who are pregnant, may become pregnant, or are bosom taking care of.

The accompanying medication classes are recorded in sequential request. This rundown isn’t planned to sub for conventional clinical data or endorsing. It is offered exclusively as an aide.

  1. Alpha-Acting Specialists
    Alpha-Acting Specialists (for example clonidine is not recommended given restricted insight with their utilization, they can’t be viewed as first-line or second-line analgesics, yet a preliminary of their utilization might be justified at times of stubborn agony.
  2. Anticonvulsants
    Anticonvulsants are not recommended as first-line prescriptions in the treatment of non-intense torment. All patients on these meds ought to be observed for self-destructive ideation, hepatic, and renal working as well as thought of the potential for medicine cooperation.

    Anticonvulsants are not recommended for pivotal spine torment (neck or back torment without reported radiation) except if there is proof of a related neuropathic part. These specialists can likewise be thought about in the setting of post-horrible headache cerebral pain.

    • Carbamazepine
      Carbamazepine is recommended as a likely assistant for ongoing radicular or neuropathic torment later endeavoring different medicines (e.g., different meds furthermore, other helpful modalities).

      Carbamazepine has significant impacts as an inducer of hepatic compounds and may build the digestion of different medications enough to lessen helpful viability in patients taking communicating drugs. Oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine might be helpful if the results from carbamazepine are inadequate for torment alleviation.

    • Gabapentin
      Gabapentin is recommended for the treatment of serious neurogenic claudication from spinal stenosis or persistent radicular torment disorders, and for the treatment of neuropathic torment, albeit as a rule, gabapentin is not better than amitriptyline.

      Given in blend with tricyclics (for instance nortriptyline), gabapentin gives more compelling agony alleviation than monotherapy with one or the other medication.

      Gabapentin given with narcotics (for instance morphine) may result in lower aftereffects and more prominent absence of pain at lower portions than normally expected with one or the other medicine alone. Gabapentin isn’t recommended for pivotal torment or then again non-neuropathic torment.

      Ought to be started at low portion to stay away from sleepiness what’s more, may expect four to about two months for titration.

      Greatest measurement to 1800 mg and in uncommon cases up to 2400 mg each day.

      For direction on tightening of gabapentin, allude to Informative supplement J.

    • Pregabalin
      Pregabalin is recommended in the treatment of patients with neuropathic torment as a second line specialist after a preliminary trial of tricyclics. Supported for neuropathic torment related with diabetic fringe neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, and post-spinal string injury torment. Increment portion more than a few days. Portions over 150mg are typically required.

      Full advantage may not be accomplished for six to about two months. For direction on tightening of pregabalin, allude to the Reference section.

    • Topiramate
      Topiramate is recommended for restricted use when there has been a disappointment of various modalities including other medicine and remedial modalities. Whenever used, topiramate would be utilised as a third-or fourth-line drug in suitable patients.
    • Lamotrigine
      Lamotrigine is not recommended for most patients.
  3. Antidepressants

    Antidepressants are characterized into a few classes considering their compound construction and their impacts on synapse frameworks. Torment reactions might happen at lower portions with more limited reaction times than saw when these specialists are utilized in the treatment of temperament issues.

    Neuropathic torment, diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, and malignant growth-related agony may answer energizer dosages adequately low to keep away from antagonistic impacts that frequently confuse the treatment of sadness. All patients being considered for upper treatment ought to be assessed and ceaselessly checked for self-destructive ideation and mind-set swings.

    Numerous energizer drugs can possibly lower seizure edge. Consistence and useful recuperation may be undermined by auxiliary weight-gain and weakness. As a rule, secondary effects can be relieved on the off chance that a low portion is started and gradually expanded as endured.

    While stopping upper drug, specific consideration is expected for the potential for withdrawal responses, particularly on account of venlafaxine and certain tricyclics. Stimulant drugs might be useful when there is nighttime rest interruption.

    For this situation, tricyclic and tetracyclic (e.g., trazodone) antidepressants can be considered at a sleep time portion at lower levels than those utilized for treatment of wretchedness.

    • Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)

      Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) are recommended for radicular torment. Higher portions of amitriptyline might deliver more cholinergic side impacts than more up to date tricyclics like nortriptyline and desipramine. Doxepin and trimipramine additionally have narcotic impacts. Low portions are regularly utilized for persistent torment as well as sleep deprivation.

    • Significant Contraindications:

      Cardiovascular infection or dysrhythmia, glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, seizures, high self-destruction risk, uncontrolled hypertension furthermore, orthostatic hypotension.

      A screening cardiogram might be finished for those age 40 or more seasoned, particularly if higher dosages are utilized. The general potential for anticholinergic incidental effects when TCAs are endorsed continuously should be thought of, especially with more established.

    • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

      Specific Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are not recommended for neuropathic torment. SSRIs are utilized for the most part for wretchedness instead of neuropathic torment and ought not be joined with moderate to high-portion tricyclics.

    • Selective Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SSNRI)/Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI)

      Specific Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SSNRI)/Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine and milnacipran) are not recommended as a first-or second-line treatment and are saved for patients who fizzle other systems because of incidental effects.

      Duloxetine has been FDA endorsed for treatment of diabetic neuropathic torment, fibromyalgia, and constant outer muscle torment. Milnacipran has been FDA endorsed for treatment of fibromyalgia and has a triumph rate like imipramine.

    • Atypical Antidepressants/Other Agents

      Abnormal Antidepressants/Different Specialists (e.g., bupropion, mirtazapine, nefazodone) are recommended for despondency.

    • Atypical Antidepressants/Other Agents

      Abnormal Antidepressants/Different Specialists (e.g., bupropion, mirtazapine, are not recommended for neuropathic torment.

    • Compound Meds

      Compound Meds is not recommended effective, oral, and additionally framework meds.

    • Glucosamine/Chondroitin
      Glucosamine/Chondroitin is not recommended

    • Hypnotics and Sedatives

      Hypnotics and Sedatives (e.g., benzodiazepines, zaleplon, eszopiclone, zolpidem) are not recommended Prescribed because of the enslavement potential, withdrawal side effects, and quieting aftereffects, benzodiazepines and other comparable medications viewed as in this class are not commonly are recommended.

      They ought to be utilized with intense wariness when the patient is on persistent narcotics. At the point when utilized, broad patient schooling ought to be recorded.

      A portion of these drugs have long half-lives and following day drowsiness and rest apnea can happen or be disturbed because of these drugs.

      Retrograde amnesia can happen and is ensnared in “rest driving,” “rest eating” and different exercises.

      Numerous accidental medication passings relate to attendant narcotic and benzodiazepine drug use. Most sleep deprivation in non-intense torment patients ought to be overseen principally through social intercessions, with prescriptions as optional measures.

      For direction on tightening Benzodiazepines and additionally benzodiazepines with simultaneous narcotics, allude to Supplement I.

  4. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) for Treatment of Non-Acute Pain

    For most patients, ibuprofen, naproxen, or other more seasoned age NSAIDs are are recommended as first-line meds. Acetaminophen (or the simple paracetamol) might be a sensible option in contrast to NSAIDs for patients who are not contender for NSAIDs, albeit most proof proposes acetaminophen is unassumingly less powerful.

    The fact that NSAIDs makes their evidence are as successful for help of torment as narcotics (counting tramadol) and less hindering.

  5. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) for Treatment of Non-Acute Pain

    Non-Steroidal Mitigating Medications (NSAIDs) for Treatment of Non-Intense Torment is recommended for treatment of nonacute torment.

    Indications – For non-intense torment, NSAIDs are are recommended for therapy. Over the counter (OTC) specialists might get the job done and ought to be attempted first.

    Frequency/Duration: Case by case use might be sensible for some patients.

    Indications for Discontinuation: Goal of side effects, absence of viability, or on the other hand advancement of unfavourable impacts, which require cessation.

    NSAIDs for Patients at High Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding


    NSAIDs for Patients at High Gamble of Gastrointestinal Dying is recommended for simultaneous utilization of cytoprotective classes of medications: misoprostol, sucralfate, receptor Type 2 receptor blockers, and proton siphon inhibitors for patients at high gamble of gastrointestinal dying.

    Indications: For patients with a high-risk factor profile who likewise have signs for NSAIDs, cytoprotective meds ought to be thought of, especially if more drawn-out term treatment is pondered. In danger patients incorporate those with a background marked by earlier gastrointestinal dying, old, diabetics, and cigarette smokers.

    Frequency/Dose/Duration: Proton siphon inhibitors, misoprostol, sucralfate, H2 blockers are recommended. Portion and recurrence per producer. There isn’t for the most part accepted to be significant contrasts in viability for avoidance of gastrointestinal dying.

    Indications for Discontinuation: Prejudice, improvement of antagonistic impacts, or cessation of NSAID. Celecoxib ought to just be utilized with intense watchfulness in patients who are simultaneously taking Ibuprofen, with severe adherence to dosing proposals of the two drugs to guarantee that patients permit more than adequate time between self-organization of these prescriptions.

  6. NSAIDs for Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Adverse Effects

    Patients with known cardiovascular sickness or numerous gamble factors for cardiovascular infection ought to have the dangers and advantages of NSAID treatment for torment talked about.

  7. NSAIDs for Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Adverse Effects

    NSAIDs for Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Adverse Effects is recommended Acetaminophen or ibuprofen as the first-line treatment have all the earmarks of being the most secure about cardiovascular antagonistic impacts.

  8. NSAIDs for Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Adverse Effects

    NSAIDs for Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Adverse Effects is recommended If necessary, NSAIDs that are non-particular are liked over COX-2 explicit medications.

    In patients getting low-portion headache medicine for essential or optional cardiovascular illness anticipation, to limit the potential for the NSAID to balance the helpful impacts of ibuprofen, the NSAID ought to be required something like 30 minutes later or 8 hours before the day-to-day anti-inflammatory medicine.

  9. Acetaminophen for Treatment of Non-Acute Pain

    Acetaminophen for Treatment of Non-Acute Pain is recommended for treatment of non-intense agony, especially in patients with contraindications for NSAIDs.

    Indications: All patients with non-intense torment.

    Indications for Discontinuation: Per maker’s proposals; might be used dependent upon the situation. There is proof of hepatic harmfulness when surpassing four gm/day. Signs for End: Goal of torment, unfavorable impacts, or prejudice.

  10. Topical Medications

    Topical Medications is recommended in select patients for treatment of non-intense agony, counting skin creams, balms, and lidocaine patches

    Reasoning for Suggestion Skin Medication Conveyance (e.g., capsaicin, effective lidocaine, effective NSAIDs and effective salicylates and no salicylates) might be an OK type of treatment in chose patients. An effective specialist ought to be recommended with severe directions for application and greatest number of uses each day to get the wanted benefit and stay away from possible poisonousness.

    For most patients, the impacts of long-haul use are obscure and hence might be better utilized verbosely. These specialists might be utilized in those patients who favor skin medicines over oral meds. Restricted skin responses might happen, contingent upon the prescription specialist utilized. Prescribers ought to consider that effective medicine can bring about poisonous blood levels.

    Capsaicin offers a protected and successful option in contrast to fundamental NSAIDs, although its utilization is restricted by nearby stinging or consuming impression that ordinarily vanishes with normal use. Patients ought to be encouraged to apply the cream on the impacted region with a latex glove or cotton instrument to stay away from coincidental contact with eyes and mucous films. Long haul utilization of capsaicin isn’t are recommended.

    Effective Lidocaine is possibly shown when there is documentation of a conclusion of neuropathic torment. In this example, a preliminary for a time of not more prominent than about a month can be thought of, with the requirement for documentation of utilitarian increases as standards for extra use.

    Effective NSAIDs (for example diclofenac gel) may accomplish tissue levels that are possibly restorative. In general, the low degree of foundational retention can be beneficial, permitting the skin utilization of these meds when fundamental organization is somewhat contraindicated, (for example, patients with hypertension, heart disappointment, peptic ulcer sickness or renal inadequacy).

    Effective Salicylates or No salicylates (for example methyl salicylate) generally speaking do not seem, by all accounts, to be more viable than effective NSAIDs. Might be utilized for a momentary course particularly in patients with constant circumstances in whom fundamental drug is generally contraindicated or as an adjuvant to fundamental drug.

  11. N-Methyl-D-Aspartic Corrosive Receptor Adversaries (e.g., ketamine)

    N-Methyl-D-Aspartic Corrosive Receptor Adversaries (e.g., ketamine) is not recommended either through oral or dermal courses.

  12. Specific Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibitors

    Specific Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibitors are recommended but not first line for okay patients who will be utilizing a NSAID present moment, however are demonstrated in select patients for whom conventional NSAIDs are not endured.

    Patients who get COX-2 inhibitors ought to take the most minimal compelling portion for the briefest time important to control side effects.

    The significant benefits of COX-2 inhibitors over conventional NSAIDs are that they have less GI harmfulness and no platelet impacts.

    Serious upper GI unfavorable occasions can happen even in asymptomatic patients who are taking COX-2 inhibitors. Patients at a high gamble incorporate those with a past filled with earlier GI drain, diabetes, liquor use, smoking, corticosteroid or on the other hand anticoagulant use, patients more established than 65 or the people who have a more extended length of treatment.

    Celecoxib ought to just be involved with intense mindfulness in patients who are simultaneously taking Anti-inflammatory medicine, with severe adherence to dosing proposals of the two prescriptions to guarantee that patients permit more than adequate time between self-organization of these meds.

    COX-2 inhibitors can deteriorate renal capability in patients with renal inadequacy; consequently, renal capability might require checking. COX-2 inhibitors ought to be involved with extraordinary watchfulness in patients with ischemic coronary illness as well as stroke and kept away from in patients with risk factors for coronary illness.

    In these patients it gives off an impression of being most secure to utilize acetaminophen, headache medicine or non-specific NSAIDs as first-line treatment. Celecoxib is contraindicated in sulfonamide hypersensitive patients.

  13. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants (e.g., baclofen, cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone, tizanidine)

    Skeletal Muscle Relaxants (e.g., baclofen, cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone, tizanidine) is recommended – for intense outer muscle injury or worsening of injury.

  14. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants (e.g., baclofen, cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone, tizanidine)

    Skeletal Muscle Relaxants (e.g., baclofen, cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone, tizanidine) is not recommended persistent utilization of any halfway acting muscle relaxant because of their propensity framing potential, extreme sedation, seizure risk following sudden withdrawal, and archived commitment to passings of patients on constant narcotics because of respiratory sadness.

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Dr. Nakul Karkare

I am fellowship trained in joint replacement surgery, metabolic bone disorders, sports medicine and trauma. I specialize in total hip and knee replacements, and I have personally written most of the content on this page.

You can see my full CV at my profile page.